The pipe organ is the king of musical instruments. No other instrument can comparewith the pipe organ in power, timbre, dynamic range, tonal complexity, and sheer majestyof sound. The art of organ building reached its peak in the Baroque Age (☻1600-1750);with the industrial revolution in the 19th century, organ building shifted from a traditionalartisans' work to factory production, changing the aesthetic concept and design of theorgan so that the profound knowledge of the organ masters passed down overgenerations was lost.This knowledge is being recreated via close collaborations between researchscientists, musicians, and organ builders throughout Europe. Dozens of metallic samplestaken from 17th - to 19th - century organ pipes have been investigated to determine theircomposition, microstructure, properties, and manufacturing proc esses using sophis -ticated methods of ma te rials science. Based upon these data, technologies for casting,forming, hammering, rolling, filing, and annealing selected lead - tin pipe alloys and brasscomponents for reed pipes have been reinvented and customized to reproduce thosefrom characteristic time periods and specific European regions. The new ma te rials recre -ated in this way are currently being proc essed and used by organ builders for the restora -tion of period organs and the manufacture of new organs with true Baroque sound"